Struct std::sync::Arc1.0.0 [] [src]

pub struct Arc<T> where T: ?Sized { /* fields omitted */ }

A thread-safe reference-counting pointer.

The type Arc<T> provides shared ownership of a value of type T, allocated in the heap. Invoking clone on Arc produces a new pointer to the same value in the heap. When the last Arc pointer to a given value is destroyed, the pointed-to value is also destroyed.

Shared references in Rust disallow mutation by default, and Arc is no exception. If you need to mutate through an Arc, use Mutex, RwLock, or one of the Atomic types.

Arc uses atomic operations for reference counting, so Arcs can be sent between threads. In other words, Arc<T> implements Send as long as T implements Send and Sync. The disadvantage is that atomic operations are more expensive than ordinary memory accesses. If you are not sharing reference-counted values between threads, consider using rc::Rc for lower overhead. Rc is a safe default, because the compiler will catch any attempt to send an Rc between threads. However, a library might choose Arc in order to give library consumers more flexibility.

The downgrade method can be used to create a non-owning Weak pointer. A Weak pointer can be upgraded to an Arc, but this will return None if the value has already been dropped.

A cycle between Arc pointers will never be deallocated. For this reason, Weak is used to break cycles. For example, a tree could have strong Arc pointers from parent nodes to children, and Weak pointers from children back to their parents.

Arc<T> automatically dereferences to T (via the Deref trait), so you can call T's methods on a value of type Arc<T>. To avoid name clashes with T's methods, the methods of Arc<T> itself are associated functions, called using function-like syntax:

use std::sync::Arc;
let my_arc = Arc::new(());

Arc::downgrade(&my_arc);Run

Weak<T> does not auto-dereference to T, because the value may have already been destroyed.

Examples

Sharing some immutable data between threads:

use std::sync::Arc;
use std::thread;

let five = Arc::new(5);

for _ in 0..10 {
    let five = five.clone();

    thread::spawn(move || {
        println!("{:?}", five);
    });
}Run

Sharing a mutable AtomicUsize:

use std::sync::Arc;
use std::sync::atomic::{AtomicUsize, Ordering};
use std::thread;

let val = Arc::new(AtomicUsize::new(5));

for _ in 0..10 {
    let val = val.clone();

    thread::spawn(move || {
        let v = val.fetch_add(1, Ordering::SeqCst);
        println!("{:?}", v);
    });
}Run

See the rc documentation for more examples of reference counting in general.

Methods

impl<T> Arc<T>
[src]

Constructs a new Arc<T>.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);Run

Returns the contained value, if the Arc has exactly one strong reference.

Otherwise, an Err is returned with the same Arc that was passed in.

This will succeed even if there are outstanding weak references.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let x = Arc::new(3);
assert_eq!(Arc::try_unwrap(x), Ok(3));

let x = Arc::new(4);
let _y = x.clone();
assert_eq!(*Arc::try_unwrap(x).unwrap_err(), 4);Run

Unstable (rc_raw #37197)

Consumes the Arc, returning the wrapped pointer.

To avoid a memory leak the pointer must be converted back to an Arc using Arc::from_raw.

Examples

#![feature(rc_raw)]

use std::sync::Arc;

let x = Arc::new(10);
let x_ptr = Arc::into_raw(x);
assert_eq!(unsafe { *x_ptr }, 10);Run

Unstable (rc_raw #37197)

Constructs an Arc from a raw pointer.

The raw pointer must have been previously returned by a call to a Arc::into_raw.

This function is unsafe because improper use may lead to memory problems. For example, a double-free may occur if the function is called twice on the same raw pointer.

Examples

#![feature(rc_raw)]

use std::sync::Arc;

let x = Arc::new(10);
let x_ptr = Arc::into_raw(x);

unsafe {
    // Convert back to an `Arc` to prevent leak.
    let x = Arc::from_raw(x_ptr);
    assert_eq!(*x, 10);

    // Further calls to `Arc::from_raw(x_ptr)` would be memory unsafe.
}

// The memory was freed when `x` went out of scope above, so `x_ptr` is now dangling!Run

impl<T> Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

Creates a new Weak pointer to this value.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

let weak_five = Arc::downgrade(&five);Run

Unstable (arc_counts #28356)

: not clearly useful, and racy

Gets the number of Weak pointers to this value.

Safety

This method by itself is safe, but using it correctly requires extra care. Another thread can change the weak count at any time, including potentially between calling this method and acting on the result.

Examples

#![feature(arc_counts)]

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);
let _weak_five = Arc::downgrade(&five);

// This assertion is deterministic because we haven't shared
// the `Arc` or `Weak` between threads.
assert_eq!(1, Arc::weak_count(&five));Run

Unstable (arc_counts #28356)

: not clearly useful, and racy

Gets the number of strong (Arc) pointers to this value.

Safety

This method by itself is safe, but using it correctly requires extra care. Another thread can change the strong count at any time, including potentially between calling this method and acting on the result.

Examples

#![feature(arc_counts)]

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);
let _also_five = five.clone();

// This assertion is deterministic because we haven't shared
// the `Arc` between threads.
assert_eq!(2, Arc::strong_count(&five));Run

Unstable (ptr_eq #36497)

: newly added

Returns true if the two Arcs point to the same value (not just values that compare as equal).

Examples

#![feature(ptr_eq)]

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);
let same_five = five.clone();
let other_five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(Arc::ptr_eq(&five, &same_five));
assert!(!Arc::ptr_eq(&five, &other_five));Run

impl<T> Arc<T> where T: Clone
[src]

Makes a mutable reference into the given Arc.

If there are other Arc or Weak pointers to the same value, then make_mut will invoke clone on the inner value to ensure unique ownership. This is also referred to as clone-on-write.

See also get_mut, which will fail rather than cloning.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let mut data = Arc::new(5);

*Arc::make_mut(&mut data) += 1;         // Won't clone anything
let mut other_data = data.clone();      // Won't clone inner data
*Arc::make_mut(&mut data) += 1;         // Clones inner data
*Arc::make_mut(&mut data) += 1;         // Won't clone anything
*Arc::make_mut(&mut other_data) *= 2;   // Won't clone anything

// Now `data` and `other_data` point to different values.
assert_eq!(*data, 8);
assert_eq!(*other_data, 12);Run

impl<T> Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

Returns a mutable reference to the inner value, if there are no other Arc or Weak pointers to the same value.

Returns None otherwise, because it is not safe to mutate a shared value.

See also make_mut, which will clone the inner value when it's shared.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let mut x = Arc::new(3);
*Arc::get_mut(&mut x).unwrap() = 4;
assert_eq!(*x, 4);

let _y = x.clone();
assert!(Arc::get_mut(&mut x).is_none());Run

Trait Implementations

impl<T> PartialOrd<Arc<T>> for Arc<T> where T: PartialOrd<T> + ?Sized
[src]

Partial comparison for two Arcs.

The two are compared by calling partial_cmp() on their inner values.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;
use std::cmp::Ordering;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert_eq!(Some(Ordering::Less), five.partial_cmp(&Arc::new(6)));Run

Less-than comparison for two Arcs.

The two are compared by calling < on their inner values.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(five < Arc::new(6));Run

'Less than or equal to' comparison for two Arcs.

The two are compared by calling <= on their inner values.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(five <= Arc::new(5));Run

Greater-than comparison for two Arcs.

The two are compared by calling > on their inner values.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(five > Arc::new(4));Run

'Greater than or equal to' comparison for two Arcs.

The two are compared by calling >= on their inner values.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(five >= Arc::new(5));Run

impl<T> Drop for Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

Drops the Arc.

This will decrement the strong reference count. If the strong reference count reaches zero then the only other references (if any) are Weak, so we drop the inner value.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

struct Foo;

impl Drop for Foo {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        println!("dropped!");
    }
}

let foo  = Arc::new(Foo);
let foo2 = foo.clone();

drop(foo);    // Doesn't print anything
drop(foo2);   // Prints "dropped!"Run

impl<T> Deref for Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

The resulting type after dereferencing

The method called to dereference a value

impl<T> Eq for Arc<T> where T: Eq + ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Hash for Arc<T> where T: Hash + ?Sized
[src]

Feeds this value into the state given, updating the hasher as necessary.

Feeds a slice of this type into the state provided.

impl<T> Debug for Arc<T> where T: Debug + ?Sized
[src]

Formats the value using the given formatter.

impl<T, U> CoerceUnsized<Arc<U>> for Arc<T> where T: Unsize<U> + ?Sized, U: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Sync for Arc<T> where T: Send + Sync + ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> From<T> for Arc<T>
1.6.0
[src]

Performs the conversion.

impl<T> Display for Arc<T> where T: Display + ?Sized
[src]

Formats the value using the given formatter.

impl<T> AsRef<T> for Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
1.5.0
[src]

Performs the conversion.

impl<T> Default for Arc<T> where T: Default
[src]

Creates a new Arc<T>, with the Default value for T.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let x: Arc<i32> = Default::default();
assert_eq!(*x, 0);Run

impl<T> Clone for Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

Makes a clone of the Arc pointer.

This creates another pointer to the same inner value, increasing the strong reference count.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

five.clone();Run

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

impl<T> Ord for Arc<T> where T: Ord + ?Sized
[src]

Comparison for two Arcs.

The two are compared by calling cmp() on their inner values.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;
use std::cmp::Ordering;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert_eq!(Ordering::Less, five.cmp(&Arc::new(6)));Run

impl<T> PartialEq<Arc<T>> for Arc<T> where T: PartialEq<T> + ?Sized
[src]

Equality for two Arcs.

Two Arcs are equal if their inner values are equal.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(five == Arc::new(5));Run

Inequality for two Arcs.

Two Arcs are unequal if their inner values are unequal.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

assert!(five != Arc::new(6));Run

impl<T> Send for Arc<T> where T: Send + Sync + ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Borrow<T> for Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

impl<T> Pointer for Arc<T> where T: ?Sized
[src]

Formats the value using the given formatter.

impl<T: RefUnwindSafe + ?Sized> UnwindSafe for Arc<T>
1.9.0
[src]