How Redox Compares to Other Operating Systems
We share quite a lot with other operating systems.
The Redox syscall interface is Unix-y. For example, we have
execv, and so on. Currently, we support the 31 most common Linux syscalls.
Compared to Linux, our syscall interface is much more minimal. This is not because of the stage in development, but because of a minimalist design.
"Everything is a URL"
This is an generalization of "Everything is a file", largely inspired by Plan 9. In Redox, resources can be both socket-like and file-like, making them fast enough to use for virtually everything.
This way, we get a more unified system API. We will explain this later, in URLs, schemes, and resources.
Redox's kernel is a microkernel. The architecture is largely inspired by MINIX.
In contrast to Linux or BSD, Redox has only 16,000 lines of kernel code, a number that is often decreasing. Most services are provided in user space.
Having vastly smaller amounts of code in the kernel makes it easier to find and fix bugs/security issues more efficiently. Andrew Tanenbaum (author of MINIX) stated that for every 1,000 lines of properly written code, there is a bug. This means that for a monolithic kernel with nearly 25,000,000 lines of code, there could be nearly 25,000 bugs. A microkernel with only 16,000 lines of code would mean that around 16 bugs exist.
It should be noted that the extra lines are simply based outside of kernel space, making them less dangerous, not necessarily a smaller number.
The main idea is to have components and drivers that would be inside a monolithic kernel exist in user space and follow the Principle of Least Authority (POLA). This is where every individual component is:
- Completely isolated in memory and as a separate user process
- The failure of one component does not crash other components
- Foreign and untrusted code does not expose the entire system
- Bugs and malware cannot spread to other components
- Has restricted communication with other components
- Doesn't have Admin/Super-User privileges
- Bugs are moved to user space which reduces their power
All of this increases the reliability of the system significantly. This is useful for mission-critical applications and for users that want minimal issues with their computer systems.